Begins with a survey of different ethical options, briefly noting their shortcomings (Geisler 17-22).
Christian View of Ethics
- Based on God’s Will
- Is absolute
- Based on God’s revelation
- Is prescriptive
- Is Deontological
Not simply that there are no norms. Also includes that norms aren’t real, but just in the mind.
Nominalism is a form of antinomianism. If applied to ethics, it’s hard to see how there can be a concept of justice independent of the human knower.
The situationist has the one law of love, the many general principles of wisdom, and the moment of decision (Geisler 45). Fletcher repeatedly asserts that the rule of Christian ethics is “love.” So what do I do in a specific situation? The “what and why” are absolute and the how is relative.
Geisler does note a number of legitimate strengths of situationism, but nonetheless there are gaping inadequacies.
- One norm is too general (57).
- Unless there is advanced cognitive content to what “love” is, then one doesn’t really know what I am commanded to do!
- There can be many universal norms.
- Fletcher hasn’t given any substantial reason on why axioms deduced from other axioms can’t be universal.
- A different universal norm is possible.
- Why do we privilege Christian love and not Buddhist compassion?
- On what basis do we choose one single norm as binding?
Greatest good for greatest number.
Problems and ambiguities:
- who gets to determine what “good” means?
- Offers no protection to minority viewpoint, since by definition they will never been in the “greater” number.
- The definition of “end” is unclear. Do we mean a few years? Lifetime? Eternity? In that case, only God could be a utilitarian and he is not (77).
premise: all moral conflicts are only apparent; they are not real (79). Held by Augustine, Kant, Charles Hodge, John Murray, and Puritanboard.
hypothetical problem: Lie to the Nazis at the door?
Augustine: cannot gain eternal life by temporal evil.
John Murray: Sanctity of Truth and Truth is the essence of God. However, he does not believe every intentional deception is a lie (e.g., a general’s movements in war).
- Are sins of the soul necessarily worse? Perhaps, but the Platonic premise here should at least by acknowledged. On this view, a “white lie” is worse than rape.
- Can the lie to save lives be separated from mercy? “God blessed the mercy but not the lie.” But is this really coherent?
- Will God always save us from moral dilemmas? 1 Cor. 10:13 only promises victory from temptation, not deliverance from moral dilemmas. In fact, the very fact of martyrdom means the martyr isn’t delivered from at least one bad consequence.
- Even one exception to this rule kills Unqualified Absolutism–and Augustine allows for exceptions in the case of Abraham and Isaac/Jepthath and his daughter.
- John Murray doesn’t believe we should be truthful in all circumstances (Murray 145).
“Punting to Providence”
- God does not always spare his children from moral dilemmas. In fact, obedience often puts the believer in dilemmas!
“Third Alternatives are not always available.”
- Tubal pregnancies
- We leave our lights on when we aren’t home to trick robbers.
- The unqualified absolutist often commits unmerciful acts.
- Tendency to legalism (e.g., Puritanboard).
Premise: (1) Real moral conflicts do occur in this fallen world.
(1.1) Yet when faced with this conflict, man is morally accountable to both principles. In other words, sucks to be you.
(1.2) Yet, sin is conquerable through the cross.
Popularized as “Lesser-evil” approach. Best seen in Lutheran Two-Kingdoms. Also, Lutherans will (correctly) praise Bonhoeffer’s attempt to kill Hitler but also say it did violate a norm.
As Geisler notes, this position is basically saying “we have moral duty to sin,” which is absurd (Geisler 103). Another problem, whatever God commands is ipso facto good, so it can’t be a “lesser evil.”
Graded Absolutism (This is Geisler’s and my view)
- There are higher and lower moral laws.
- There are unavoidable moral conflicts
- No guilt is imputed for the unavoidable.
- Love for God is more important than love for man.
- Obey God over Government
- Mercy over veracity (Nazis at the door).