Modern political options have all seen progress and time in a linear fashion. Even more so, because of time there must naturally be progress. By contrast, Dugin suggests that
T1: Time is a social phenomenon with its structures arising from social paradigms (68).
By this he wants to safeguard the idea that there can be “interruptions” and reversals in the flow of time. History does not simply teach the march of capitalism upon earth (borrowing and adapting Hegel’s phrase).
Nevertheless, and perhaps unaware, Dugin remains close to the linear view. He does note that time is “historical” (70) and from that draws a very important, Heideggerian conclusion: it cannot be objective.
Why not? The acting subject, the historical observer (whom we will call “Dasein,” but this is true also of the individual in liberalism) is finite. He doesn’t have a god’s-eye view on history.
Of course, that’s not to say it can’t be real or reliable per the observer, but we don’t have the Enlightenment’s dream of a god’s-eye application of reason to reality.