This is his second volume on the Middle Ages.
It is tempting to color the Middle Ages either as a period of gross or superstition or incredible beauty. This answer is neither. Or both. Much as we may be disgusted, and rightly so, at the abuses of the medieval papacy, some popes were truly talented individuals. Further, papal supremacy, while built on a foundation of sand, did nonetheless rein in lawless barons. For example, the most competent, if not the most scriptural, of medieval popes, Gregory VII, kept warring Europe in line. Schaff writes, “it was a spiritual despotism, but it checked a political despotism” (Schaff 34).
The section on the Crusades read like a novel at times. Schaff rightly deplores the indulgences and the erring piety behind the Crusades, but he notes, as we must all admit, that the military actions of the Western Europeans destroyed enough Muslim personnel to prevent a Muslim conquest of Europe (at least until the 21st century).
Surprisingly, Schaff gives a relatively positive account of the 4th Crusade. This one is tricky and requires some background. The rightful emperor was Isaac Angelus. He was deposed and blinded by his brother Alexius III. Long story short, the Latins intervened and deposed Alexius III and restored Isaac (for a time). As unfortunate as later events were, this action “prolonged the successful resistance to the Turks” (273 n1). Yes, they turned Constantinople into a brothel, but one can’t help but wonder if Byzantine schemes didn’t set the stage.
Inquisition and Sacraments
Most people will find the section on the Inquisition fascinating, if only for morbid reasons. It contains enough lurid details.
Theologically, Schaff’s section on the sacraments is of the most value to the theology student. All medievals follow the Augustinian definition as “a visible sign of invisible grace.” There is a virtue inherent in the sacraments. They confer and confirm grace (continere et conferre gratiam). God is the original cause of grace. The sacraments, per Thomas, are the instrumental cause (705).
The body of Christ is in the sacrament not quantitatively, but in substance. Not in dimensions but by a power peculiar to the sacrament. This is the doctrine of concomitance (717). They argued that the whole Christ is in each of the elements, which justifies withdrawing the cup from the laity.
Penance and Indulgences
Penance deletes mortal sins committed after baptism (729). It has four elements (contrititon, sorrow of the soul, which negative part is attrition), confession, satisfaction, and absolution. An indulgence simply mitigates the works of satisfaction needed for an absolution (737).
Sin and Grace
The flesh is tainted, being conceived in concupiscence. It is both taint and guilt (749). Grace: man needs prevenient grace “to beget in him the disposition to holiness” (753). Justification has four elements: 1) infusion of grace; 2) movement of the free will towards God; 3) the act of the free will against sin; 4) remission of sins.
This book is magnificent. The prose reads like a novel.
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